Taking Aim at Multiracial Democracy
“We cannot cross until we carry each other,
all of us refugees, all of us prophets…
This time it’s all of us or none.”
The last thing White nationalist Robert Bowers posted to social media before his deadly attack on the Tree of Life synagogue was, “I can’t sit by and watch my people get slaughtered. Screw your optics, I’m going in.” That was October 27, 2018. Bowers’ killing of 11 Jewish worshippers at the Pittsburgh synagogue sent shock waves through both the U.S. Jewish community and all those concerned with the violence of bigoted politics. As shocking as it was, it is important to understand that Bowers’ attack was driven by an explicitly White nationalist ideology—an ideology that imagines that U.S. Jews are manipulating policy to use non-White immigrants as a weapon against White people. In his post, Bowers also declared that the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS), a Jewish humanitarian aid organization for refugees that Bowers believed partnered with Tree of Life, “likes to bring in invaders that kill our people.”1
Exactly six months later, White nationalist John T. Earnest attacked a Chabad synagogue in Poway, California, killing one congregant and injuring several others. In the manifesto he posted to 8chan before the attack, Earnest expressed a similar claim to Bowers, stating his conviction that Jews engineered a “meticulously planned genocide of the European race” through orchestrating massive non-White immigration and other phenomena.2
These acts of heartbreaking violence left many Americans at a loss to understand the ideology that motivated them. In fact, antisemitism has always been a core element of White nationalist thought. For White nationalists, who hold the explicitly racist belief that non-White others are intrinsically inferior, Jews are imagined as the architects of a strategy to use immigrants and “liberal” policy to undermine White civilization and challenge White existence. As this extremist ideology moves from the fringes to increasingly influence the Republican Party, all the way up to the White House, it is important to understand how antisemitism and anti-immigrant racism are core mobilizing strategies of the Right in the Trump era. Make no mistake, it is the White nationalists and their dog-whistling allies in the Trump camp who pose the principal threat to U.S. Jews, alongside a nationalist policy agenda that targets immigrants and communities of color with bigotry and exclusion.3
White nationalists like Bowers and Earnest imagine that immigrants of color pose an “existential threat to White people,” and they blame Jews as a group for orchestrating what both they and President Trump have called an “invasion” of such immigrants. 4;5 Both ideas—the paramount value of White racial identity and the conception of Jews as malevolent conspiratorial manipulators—are deeply rooted in the history of European White supremacy, and have been refined and promoted by the contemporary White nationalist movement in all its bewildering array. Their ideas have, at the same time, been increasingly echoed and reinforced, in explicit and coded form, from right-wing elected officials, including President Trump, and media pundits. These right-wing leaders fuse antisemitism with anti-immigrant sentiment to mobilize millions behind a racist, nationalist project.
Since 2016, the U.S. has seen a marked increase in bigoted and exclusionary rhetoric and policy from right-wing political leaders, and a surge in grassroots violence from White nationalists and the broader base of the Right, targeting Muslim, Latinx, Arab, Black, and other ethnic minority communities and marginalized groups. As part of this trend, the U.S. has seen a frightening escalation of antisemitism across the Right—from Trump’s antisemitic campaign ads and Republican rhetoric scapegoating George Soros and “globalists,” to the rise of the online Alt Right movement, White nationalist street mobilizations like the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, and deadly and thwarted violence, arson, and vandalism targeting synagogues and Jewish cemeteries.6;7;8;9;10;11 The scapegoating rhetoric deployed by mainstream right-wing leaders is both call and response to White nationalist attacks on Jews, immigrants and other vulnerable communities.
The Trump administration and its supporters represent the principal source and threat of antisemitism in the U.S. Whether they articulate Jews as chief architects of so-called White genocide, shadowy orchestrators of non-white immigration, corruptors of traditional social norms, or in some other manipulative mold, antisemitism is a core component of how the Trump-empowered Right explains the world and their own place in it.12 Regardless of whether Trump and other right-wing political and media leaders personally hold White nationalist views of Jews as sinister manipulators, they utilize conspiratorial antisemitism as a tool to consolidate support, mobilize their base, and reinforce their hold on power. As the Right attempts to further contract the boundaries of the U.S. around the image of a White, Christian America, we have seen this hard-wired racism and antisemitism spark violence and vitriol during election season and other moments of heightened political tension.
Looking ahead to the 2020 election and beyond, it is likely that conspiratorial scapegoating against Jews will be further amplified. Jewish communities will continue to face the threat of violent attack, and a range of racial and ethnic minority groups, along with broad-based movements for equality and social change, will increasingly find themselves delegitimized by antisemitic rhetoric. As White nationalism continues to recast the mainstream Right in its image, the many communities under threat must develop strategies and practices of solidarity, united by an expansive vision of a world where all communities can thrive. One year after the Pittsburgh shooter struck at Jews to defend his White race from immigrants, it is imperative that we understand the entanglement of antisemitism with anti-immigrant racism and the broader racial and ethnic nationalism that is animating the Right, if we are to fortify and expand inclusive, multi-racial democracy.
The Demographic Obsession of White Nationalism
White nationalists promote the notion that people of European heritage constitute a biological, cultural, and political entity known as the White race.13 This is sometimes euphemized as Western or Christian civilization.14 They assert that the demographic cohesion, identity, and continuity of the White race is under imminent and existential attack by massive non-white immigration and the forces of multiculturalism—a crisis they call “white genocide” or “the great replacement.”15 Such ideas precede the Trump administration by decades. Movement intellectual Jared Taylor wrote in 1996, “What we are witnessing is one of the great tragedies in human history. Powerful forces are in motion that, if left unchecked, will slowly push aside European man and European civilization on this [North American] continent. If we do nothing, the country we leave to our grandchildren will be a grim Third-World failure, in which whites will be a minority.”16 The only way to preserve a future for the White race, in their eyes, is to establish a homogenous ethnostate, within which Whites must command a decisive demographic majority and from which non-whites must be purged.17
White nationalists see racial categories as biological, immutable essences. Obsessed with demographic decline, they interpret the mere presence of non-whites on “their” territory as an existential threat, as is clearly stated in their movement mantra known as the 14 words: “we must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children.”18;19 Accordingly, they see current manifestations of institutional White supremacy, such as mass incarceration, privatizing the public good, persistent racialized wealth inequality, and more, as not racist enough. They are oriented towards ethnic cleansing, from pragmatic means such as immigration restriction, through to expulsion and genocide. As we shall see, the White nationalist framework of separation and expulsion, as distinct from a White supremacist framework of domination and exploitation, is operative not only among movement militants but also among the buttoned-down strategists that write the Trump administration’s immigration policies.
Antisemitism at the Core
“The core concept of the [White nationalist] movement, upon which all else is based is that Whites are undergoing an extermination, via mass immigration into White countries which was enabled by a corrosive liberal ideology of White self-hatred,” stated neonazi propagandist Andrew Anglin in “A Normie’s Guide to the Alt-Right,” an August 2016 manifesto published on his inflammatory website The Daily Stormer. He added, “the Jews are at the center of this agenda.”20 Indeed, antisemitism forms the linchpin of how White nationalists understand their predicament.
For White nationalists, progressive U.S. Jewish activists have worked for over a century to covertly orchestrate a slew of progressive forces, from the civil rights, feminist, and LGBTQ rights movements to multiculturalism, “political correctness,” and more.21 White nationalists purport that Jews have long supported these “corrosive liberal ideolog[ies],” as Anglin called them, in order to chip away at the cultural and ideological pillars upholding traditional White U.S. culture.22 For example, Kevin MacDonald, an antisemitic evolutionary psychologist and White nationalist thought leader, argues, “beginning in the 1920s, Jewish intellectual and political movements have been a necessary condition for the reshaping of American culture away from a strong sense of being a European [White] Christian society in the direction of globalism, multiculturalism, and mass immigration of non-Europeans and non-Christians.”23 By framing White Christians as the historic and rightful core of the United States, White nationalists minimize the vital role played by non-White and non-Christian peoples in the history of the U.S., while justifying the traumatic legacies of slavery and indigenous genocide.
White nationalist antisemitism plays a distinct and crucial role in the movement’s spectrum of bigotry. To most White nationalists, Jews are not White.24 While other ethnic and religious groups are seen as external demographic and cultural threats from below, Jews, claim White nationalists, have destabilized White civilization from within or above, the prime movers and puppet masters of creeping White genocide. “To rail against blacks and Hispanics without mentioning Jews,” wrote neonazi leader Victor Gerhard in 2003, “is like complaining about the symptoms and not the disease.”25 By blaming Jews for the gamut of purported systemic attacks on White people, the White nationalist movement welds together an overarching worldview that interprets a range of disparate political, cultural and economic phenomena—from the civil rights movement and liberal immigration policy, to changing gender roles, corporate outsourcing and job loss—as interconnected machinations of a sinister, conspiratorial Jewish elite. Within the movement’s broad constellation of others, “the organized Jewish community,” said Greg Johnson, publisher of the White nationalist periodical Counter-Currents, “is the principal enemy—not the sole enemy, but the principal enemy—of every attempt to halt and reverse white extinction. One cannot defeat an enemy one will not name. Therefore, White Nationalism is inescapably anti-Semitic.”26
Given their fixation on demographic change, theories framing non-white immigration as a Jewish conspiracy hold special prominence in the White nationalist worldview. In his 1998 book, The Culture of Critique, Kevin MacDonald advanced the influential thesis that U.S. Jewish political clout played a pivotal role in reversing the restrictive U.S. Immigration Act of 1924, securing the 1965 immigration reforms that, over the coming decades, would drastically alter the demographic makeup of the country.27
Jews vigorously pursue this activism, argues McDonald, because they have adapted a vested interest “in opposing the establishment of ethnically and culturally homogeneous societies in which they reside as minorities” as a way to thrive in diaspora.28;29 As White nationalist leader William Pierce explained in 2002, “the motive driving the Jews’ campaign for the new immigration law in 1965 that brought in the flood of non-White immigrants who have so drastically darkened America in recent decades…was to dilute White political strength, to multiculturalize America, so that Whites couldn’t gang up on the Jews.”30 Pierce is best known as the author of The Turner Diaries, a 1978 dystopian novel, highly influential within the White nationalist movement. The book inspired a number of White nationalist violent attacks in the 1980s and 90s, including the bombing by Timothy McVeigh of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995, killing 168 people.31 The Turner Diaries depicted an apocalyptic race war waged by White revolutionaries against a Jewish-controlled world government, culminating in the systematic extermination of non-whites.32 Today, White nationalists remain convinced that in the 21st century, as movement intellectual Andrew Joyce described in a December 2018 essay tracing Jewish involvement in refugee and immigrant organizations, “Jews are demonstrably providing the leadership, organisational capacity, money, and legal aggression that is driving the mass migration machine.”33
Indeed, for White nationalists, presumed Jewish control over immigration policy is understood as one manifestation of sweeping Jewish power over the U.S. (and global) political system as a whole. As David Lane, member of the White nationalist violent vigilante group, The Order, and author of the “14 Words” put it bluntly in his mid-1990s White Genocide Manifesto—“all Western nations are ruled by a Zionist [read Jewish] conspiracy to mix, overrun and exterminate the white race.”34 Driven by an acute sense of White victimization and aspiration towards revolutionary heroism, Bowers, Earnest and many other antisemitic activists see themselves as guerrilla warriors, liberating the incipient white ethnostate from this all-powerful, unassimilable, permanently foreign elite.
Escalating Threat of White Nationalism
On October 27, 2018, Robert Bowers invoked this conspiratorial linkage between U.S. Jews and non-White immigration to commit the deadliest attack on Jews in U.S. history at the Tree of Life synagogue in Pittsburgh. White nationalists like him are a growing force on the U.S. and global political landscape, and without appropriate interventions, we can expect violent attacks against Jews and other minorities to continue and even to escalate.
Of course, Jews are far from the only targets of White nationalist violence. From El Paso, Texas to Charleston, South Carolina and Christchurch, New Zealand, Latinx, Muslim, and Black communities have been attacked by mass shooters whose manifestos, posted on forums like Gab or 8chan, are steeped in a White nationalist worldview, which sees “White genocide” and “great replacement” lurking around the corner.35;36 These ideologically interconnected attacks are carried out by individuals who share ideas, tactics and encouragement with the broader White nationalist movement online, before ultimately carrying out each attack independently.37 In the summer of 2019, federal and local authorities arrested at least four far-right White men who expressed intent to commit mass attacks.Three were explicit White nationalists, who planned to shoot up or bomb synagogues and Jewish community centers.38
Nor is this threat limited to the U.S. On October 9, 2019, on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, a White nationalist attempted unsuccessfully to storm a synagogue in Halle, Germany, before killing 2 people in a nearby shooting spree. In a live video streamed online during the attack, the gunman railed against “feminism” and “mass immigration,” declaring, “the root of all these problems is the Jew.”39 Similarly motivated deadly attacks—such as the 2019 murder of 49 Muslim worshippers at a mosque in Christchurch, New Zealand40, and the murder of 77 people in Norway in 201141—show that White nationalist terrorism, driven by widespread “great replacement” ideology, remains a global phenomenon.42
Today, watchdog organizations track high levels of antisemitic incidents and violent attacks from the Right.43 Meanwhile, White nationalism enjoys an expanding potential base of support across the U.S. landscape. Studies indicate that millions of White Americans hold a strong sense of White identity and victimization,and express a “desire for collective action on behalf of Whites.”44;45 Millions also fear that the effects of the country becoming majority non-White by 2045 will be mostly negative.46;47
Meanwhile, White nationalist views on immigration are shaping the rhetoric and policy of the mainstream Right. Today, many observers describe the draconian anti-immigrant policies of the Trump administration as motivated by some version of White nationalism. Jayashri Srikantiah and Shirin Sinnar, for example, wrote in a March 2019 essay published in the Stanford Law Review, that the Trump administration has implemented a “dizzying array of policy changes that explicitly target or disproportionately affect noncitizens of color” and observed that Trump’s statements on immigrants and refugees “suggest that he views U.S. national identity in racial terms and seeks to preserve the nation’s predominantly white identity.”48 Meanwhile, mainstream pundits across the Right increasingly adopt “great replacement” rhetoric to insinuate that White Americans are being replaced through immigration, with Fox News commentators regularly warning of an “invasion…of illegal immigrants” that will “replace…the old America with a new America.”49
At the same time, prominent organizations in the anti-immigrant movement act as a bridge between open White nationalists and what have become relatively mainstream politicians and media outlets. The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) and the Center for Immigration Studies (CIS), two leading anti-immigrant organizations founded by White nationalist John Tanton, have spent decades advocating for draconian immigration restriction policies now adopted by the Trump administration.50;51
These and other trends indicate that even as Trump and most mainstream Republicans disavow White nationalism—and White nationalists, in turn, often express disillusionment and even active opposition to Trump and other right-wing leaders—White nationalists are succeeding in their long-term metapolitical strategy of social transformation by shifting and shaping a long term policy agenda, and structuring basic elements of the common-sense worldview held by millions across the U.S.52
Antisemitism as a Technique of Power
Conspiracism against George Soros or globalist elites (a parallel antisemitic trope also favored by the mainstream Right, evoking a similarly shadowy cabal orchestrating non-white immigration and various progressive causes53) gains sizable traction and staying power from the stereotype of what industrialist Henry Ford called the “International Jew,” a concept deeply rooted in popular imagination by the legacy of modern European antisemitism.54 From early 20th-century Tsarist Russia to Nazi Germany, conservative and ultra-nationalist governments and social movements have long fixated upon the fantasy of a scheming, secretive Jewish cabal, diabolically manipulating world affairs.55 Concentrated in liberal urban settings and institutions like government, finance, and the media and disloyal to traditional norms and values, the stereotype paints Jews as eager to backstab the nationalist cause out of loyalty to a shadowy global conspiracy.56 Today, this charge is voiced explicitly by White nationalists, while coded forms like the scapegoating of George Soros and globalists help to repackage White nationalist ideology for broader public consumption.
Progressive opposition to exclusionary nationalist policies such as Trump’s border wall or the detention and separation of immigrant and refugee families are marked as globalist or backed by Soros, bolstering the notion of interconnected threats posed by a sinister, parasitic elite. This elite is rendered as an absolute enemy of the racist nationalist project, intent, ultimately, upon diluting national identity, subverting traditional values and collapsing “Western civilization” itself.57;58;59;60 Right-wing leaders posit this “big Other” to explain the intrusion of immigrant others upon the White Christian body politic and to justify the implementation of policies to remove these intruders, while inspiring a subset of militant followers, such as Bowers and Earnest, to use vigilante violence.
As a racialized form of anti-elitist conspiracism, this kind of modern European-derived antisemitism looks and functions differently than many forms of oppression. While many forms of oppression “punch down” by dehumanizing and declaring some groups of people inferior based on race, class and gender, modern antisemitism claims to “punch up” at a secretive, elite class of Jews, who White nationalists imagine sit in a more powerful position from which they orchestrate the world’s problems.61 During times of intense economic downturn, widespread inequality and political instability, right-wing leaders and social movements use antisemitic scapegoating to redirect popular discontent away from challenging the inequitable systems and policies they create, uphold, and benefit from, and onto the false image of the conniving, all-powerful Jew, whether in explicit or euphemized form.
In their book Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort, researchers Chip Berlet and Matthew Lyons explain that modern right-wing populist movements have long attracted “middle-level groups in the social hierarchy, notably middle- and working-class Whites, who have a stake in traditional social privilege but resent the power of upper-class elites over them,” as well as certain factions of the societal elite itself.62 For over a century, explain Berlet and Lyons, right-wing populist movements in the U.S. have mobilized these sectors of White society—anxious to preserve the privileges of Whiteness, alienated by perceived cultural change, and often bruised by economic dislocation—to punch down at immigrants and groups of color below them, and up at an easily imaginable face of the elite, perceived to sit above them in the social hierarchy.63
Throughout the history of the U.S., explain Berlet and Lyons, populist movements have existed across the right, left and center of the political spectrum. These movements, they explain, “can promote forms of antielitism that target either genuine structures of oppression or scapegoats alleged to be part of a secret conspiracy. And they can define ‘the people’ in ways that are inclusive and challenge traditional hierarchies, or in ways that silence or demonize oppressed groups.”64 While progressive populist movements offer, at their best, a clear analysis and condemnation of the real societal elites who benefit from structures of exploitation, right-wing populism “fueled in large part by people’s grievances against their own oppression…deflect[s] popular discontent away from positive social change by targeting only small sections of the elite or groups falsely identified with the elite, and especially by channeling most anger against oppressed or marginalized groups that offer more vulnerable targets.”65
For the race-obsessed White nationalist movement, this manifests as taking aim explicitly at Jews, who they view as a racialized image of the upper-class elite, in an attempt to galvanize Whites in the U.S. around a radical agenda of separation and exclusion. White nationalists use the very fact that, over the twentieth century, some U.S. Jews entered visible positions in portions of the middle and upper classes, while some others enthusiastically embraced progressive causes, as proof of their false and conspiratorial view of Jews as hidden puppeteers both of economic and governmental power structures, and of progressive movements.
Meanwhile, many right-wing elected officials and media figures, while possibly holding no conscious commitment to ideological Jew-hatred, also deploy conspiracist punching up, rooted in modern antisemitism, as an effective technique to define and mobilize a self-proclaimed “American middle,” squeezed by elites from above and non-white immigrants and communities of color from below, around a racist, nationalist agenda.66
The anti-elitist posturing of right-wing populism resonates for many Americans fed up with widespread poverty and wealth inequality, corrupt and unaccountable political leadership, media monopolization, the hollowing out of democracy, and other alienating ills of late capitalism. As racial and economic justice advocate Dania Rajendra puts it, “antisemitism is a powerful explanation for a society looking for answers about why the richest nation in the history of the world often feels so terrible to live in, to work in, to be neighbors in.”67 While blaming immigrants for job loss and holding other bigoted views against Muslims, Black folks and other groups, many people are also energized by the prospect of punching up at an imagined globalist elite, personified in the visage of select prominent Jews like George Soros, whom they hold intimately responsible for their economic misery and social alienation.
The irony, of course, is that Trump and other right-wing leaders are actually among the members of the economic and political elite who are most committed to, and benefit the most from, the disastrous status quo economic policies so deeply resented by millions of their followers. Multiracial, progressive movements for democracy and equality, meanwhile, are most committed to challenging this status quo, and reshaping the rules to end exploitation, cease empowering the ultra-rich, and spread the benefits among everyone in society. By misdirecting millions towards illusory revolt against George Soros and “globalists,” antisemitic “punching up” thus functions as a powerful technique to help right-wing leaders protect and consolidate their power, foreclose the possibility of powerful multiracial solidarity, and ensure that their own inequitable policies remain hidden from scrutiny and accountability.
While progressive movements, at their best, expand the notion of “we the people” to envision a U.S. future where every group can thrive, right-wing populism wields antisemitic punching up, alongside other forms of punching down bigotry, to contract the boundaries of the “we” to exclude those, within and without, deemed infiltrators and defilers of the set of cultures, values and groups deemed truly and authentically American. Since it looks and functions differently than many more familiar forms of punching down bigotry, antisemitic punching up often remains unfamiliar and confusing to progressive movements. This lack of understanding constitutes a dangerous gap in progressive movements’ analysis of the mainstream Right and helps complicate the development of solidarity between Jews and other targets of racism and White nationalism. It is crucial for progressive movements to understand antisemitism, since it functions as a key weapon in the mainstream right-wing arsenal, and is used effectively to build and maintain power in political moments like our own.
In the weeks and months leading up to Robert Bowers’ violent attack on Tree of Life synagogue, right-wing politicians and conservative media pundits drew on White nationalist-friendly rhetoric to galvanize millions behind a racist anti-immigrant agenda. Indeed, Trump and his supporters in the mainstream Right regularly spread antisemitic ideas, however lightly veiled, to mobilize elements of their base.
On October 12, 2018 migrants fleeing violence, poverty and political repression gathered in Honduras, and began to travel north together.68 Within two days, a conspiracy that George Soros was funding and orchestrating the migrant caravan began to spread online, sparked, according to an analysis from USA Today, by a White nationalist Twitter user who posted frequently about Jews and “white genocide.”69 Though similar conspiracies had circulated earlier in 2018 regarding previous caravans, this time, it quickly spread like wildfire, as right-wing leaders positioned the supposed threat of the caravan as a defining flashpoint in the final contentious weeks before the November 6 midterm elections.70;71
According to PRA’s review, in the two months leading up to the November 6 election, Fox News and five other leading conservative websites published a combined total of at least 345 news pieces that connected Soros and globalists to liberal causes—almost one article a day per site, on average. During the month of October 2018, this conspiratorial rhetoric against George Soros and globalists was frequently voiced by right-wing officials and amplified on the shows of Fox News Channel prime-time anchors Sean Hannity, Tucker Carlson and Laura Ingraham. Each of these shows had between 3 and 3.5 million viewers—with Fox News Channel emerging as the most-watched basic cable network that month, beating CNN and MSNBC combined.72 Politicians and pundits were supported, in their antisemitic scapegoating, by conservative think tanks like Judicial Watch and Capital Research Center.73 By the time of the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting on October 27, the conspiracy that Soros was funding the migrant caravan, boosted by continued mainstream exposure, had a potential reach of over 670 million on Facebook and Twitter alone.74
In the exchange of ideas between mainstream and periphery, increasingly radical, conspiratorial and racist views are reinforced and amplified across the Right. In their landmark 2018 study, “Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics,” a team of Harvard researchers describe this process as a “propaganda feedback loop” operating across the Right, whereby “the media, [political] elites, and public are all participants in a self-reinforcing feedback loop” that exhibits “high insularity, susceptibility to information cascades, rumor and conspiracy theory, and drift toward more extreme versions of itself…[and] tend[s] to reinforce partisan statements, irrespective of their truth.”75
The cultural and commercial model of this ecosystem, researchers describe, is structured to produce cathartic outrage, visceral disgust, and an adversarial mentality. This is fueled by the relentless profit-driven quest for clicks and views, with social media platform algorithms encouraging the spread and magnifying the impact of sensationalist, conspiratorial and White nationalist content. Through the continual promotion of racism and antisemitic conspiracism, political leaders secure a reliable and outraged audience, and broadcasters secure a loyal market segment—while the beliefs and attitudes of the attentive public help shape, and in turn are shaped by, this rhetoric.
When right-wing elected officials voice antisemitic conspiracy theories, it grants these theories legitimacy and a massive public forum, helping to create a climate that encourages White nationalist attacks on Jews and other minorities. Scapegoating rhetoric by right-wing leaders, amplified and repeated by right-wing media and shared by millions of followers, functions, in the words of researcher Chip Berlet, as “scripted violence.” It encourages followers to “adopt a ‘superhero complex,’ which justifies their pre-emptive acts of violence or terrorism to ‘save society’ from imminent threats by named enemies ‘before it is too late.’” Thus, “a leader need not directly exhort violence,” writes Berlet, “to create a constituency that hears a call to take action against the named enemy.”76 While scapegoating speech from leaders helps push a subset of followers toward acts of violence, far-right segments of the public also find, in this right-wing ecosystem, opportunities to seed their ideology and rhetoric into mainstream discourse, pulling leaders rightward.
One year after the Pittsburgh shooting, the mainstream Right still weds exclusionary rhetoric about immigrants and people of color with scapegoating rhetoric about Jews, in order to mobilize millions behind a racist, nationalist, and increasingly authoritarian political agenda. If we are to defeat this growing political movement, we must understand how antisemitism, racism, and anti-immigrant rhetoric work together to create a cohesive ideology, and then directly confront and disrupt that ideology as a whole by showing the benefit of joining together across difference.
In the aftermath of the 2018 midterms and ahead of the 2020 elections, antisemitism has not receded from the U.S. landscape. Right-wing leaders including President Trump and his surrogates have continued to use antisemitic rhetoric, from railing against Soros and “cosmopolitan elite[s]” to quoting Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf in an effort to demonize liberal media on the floor of Congress.77-84 Voices on Fox News including Lou Dobbs, Tucker Carlson, Laura Ingraham and Glenn Beck have continued to scapegoat Soros and “global financiers” as secret funders of “human wave[s]” of non-white immigration, bemoaned “the degree to which George Soros is successfully remaking this country,” and advanced other antisemitic conspiracist narratives.85-90 Prominent Trump-aligned anti-immigrant organizations such as FAIR and Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) have also increasingly engaged in antisemitic discourse.91
In these and other ways, the Trump administration and its supporters and amplifiers across the Right remain the principal threats to Jews in the U.S. today. Antisemitism persists as a potent force in mainstream right-wing U.S. politics, and will likely escalate as we approach the 2020 elections, as it has in the two previous election cycles. Meanwhile, non-White immigrants, Muslims, Black folks, and other minority communities remain principal targets of White nationalist violence, as well as bigoted rhetoric and exclusionary policy from the Right. The racial and cultural fear stoked by Trump and White nationalists will continue to serve as a rich wellspring of nationalism and division, long past the 2020 elections. In truth, the fight against White nationalism is a decades-long fight.
Yesterday and today, antisemitism doesn’t only threaten the safety and vitality of Jewish communities. It serves as an especially flexible and versatile scaffolding for sweeping attacks against progressive movements and corrodes the foundations of robust democracy by convincing people that social movements arise not as organic expressions of real communities demanding rights and representation, but as the shadowy work of subversive elites infiltrating the body politic. The stakes in this moment are high. If we fail to disrupt and dismantle escalating, politicized antisemitism, we may not be able to contain the rise of White nationalism, and the steady drift of the mainstream Right towards authoritarianism and White nationalist policies of separation and exclusion.
In order to contain the rise of White nationalism, defend the safety and deepen the vibrancy of all our communities, we must challenge the bigoted and exclusionary rhetoric voiced by right-wing elected officials, transmitted by right-wing media outlets and amplified by social media platforms. We must understand the threat of White nationalist antisemitism animating today’s Right, from center to periphery—and we must interrupt this totalizing, conspiratorial antisemitic narrative with a bold, expansive vision of real, inclusive, feminist, multiracial democracy in which everyone can thrive.
We must organize together and practice solidarity between Jewish, immigrant, Muslim, Black, LGBTQI, and other communities targeted by White nationalism and the mainstream Right—and we must build a movement to win justice for all. In practice, this means working together to promote policies that advance racial and economic justice. It means engaging with our differences in a shared understanding that it is the Right—in both mainstream and White nationalist versions—that seeks to exclude, incarcerate, disenfranchise, criminalize and scapegoat our communities and silence our allies. It means understanding that however radically insufficient U.S. democracy has always been, we have to show up for each other if we are to have any chance of transforming it.
 Kevin Roose, “On Gab, an Extremist-Friendly Site, Pittsburgh Shooting Suspect Aired His Hatred in Full,” New York Times, October 28, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/28/us/gab-robert-bowers-pittsburgh-synagogue-shootings.html.
 “Alleged Poway synagogue shooter yelled that Jews are ‘ruining the world’,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, April 28, 2019, https://www.jta.org/quick-reads/alleged-poway-synagogue-shooter-lives-with-his-parents-and-thinks-jews-are-taking-over-the-world.
 While it is beyond the scope of this essay, the antisemitic Christian Zionist movement, and the Christian Right as a whole, also poses a fundamental threat to the safety and vibrancy of Jews in the U.S. and around the world. For more, see Rachel Tabachnick, “The New Christian Zionism and the Jews: A Love/Hate Relationship,” Political Research Associates, January 18, 2010, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2010/01/18/the-new-christian-zionism-and-the-jews-a-lovehate-relationship.
 Lois Beckett and Jason Wilson, “‘White power ideology’: why El Paso is part of a growing global threat,” The Guardian, August 5, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/aug/04/el-paso-shooting-white-nationalist-supremacy-violence-christchurch.
 Spencer Sunshine, “Three Pillars of the Alt Right: White Nationalism, Antisemitism, and Misogyny,” Political Research Associates, December 4, 2017, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2017/12/04/three-pillars-of-the-alt-right-white-nationalism-antisemitism-and-misogyny.
 Josh Marshall, “Trump Rolls Out Anti-Semitic Closing Ad,” Talking Points Memo, November 5, 2016, https://talkingpointsmemo.com/edblog/trump-rolls-out-anti-semitic-closing-ad. On November 5, 2016, Donald Trump rolled out the antisemitic final ad of his presidential campaign, displaying images of George Soros (Jewish financier), Janet Yellen (Jewish chair of the Federal Reserve) and Lloyd Blankfein (Jewish Goldman Sachs CEO) while condemning “a global power structure that is responsible for the economic decisions that have robbed our working class, stripped our country of its wealth and put that money into the pockets of a handful of large corporations and political entities.”
 Steve King, Twitter Post, October 11, 2017, https://twitter.com/stevekingia/status/918082467457794048. On October 11, 2017, Representative Steve King (R-IA) retweets an article claiming it is a “Christian duty” to stop George Soros’s purported plan to bring migrants into Europe. King claims, “It’s Soros’ plan for America, too;” Steve King, Twitter Post, March 23, 2018, https://twitter.com/stevekingia/status/977273172096675841. On March 23, 2018, Representative Steve King (R-IA) tweeted claiming Soros is “dangerous to God given liberty,” and shared a sensationalist image depicting Soros’ face looming behind mobs of rioters; Elspeth Reeve, “Congressman suggests Charlottesville was George Soros-backed conspiracy,” Vice News, October 5, 2017, https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/d3xwm7/paul-glosar-charlottesville-soros. On October 5, 2017, Representative Paul Gosar (R-AZ) suggested the August “Unite the Right” White nationalist rally in Charlottesville was funded by George Soros, whom Gosar accused of having “turned in his own people to the Nazis.”
 Eli Rosenberg, “Trump called Gary Cohn a ‘globalist.’ Here’s why some people find that offensive.” The Washington Post, March 9, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2018/03/09/trump-called-gary-cohn-a-globalist-heres-why-some-people-find-that-offensive/. On March 8, 2018, President Trump called Gary Cohn, outgoing economic policy adviser and outgoing director of the National Economic Council, a globalist. “He may be a globalist, but I still like him. He is seriously a globalist. There’s no question;” Donald Trump Jr, Twitter Post, April 26, 2017, https://twitter.com/DonaldJTrumpJr/status/857325836055302146. On April 26, 2017, Donald Trump Jr tweeted condemning the mainstream media’s “Globalist narrative;” Donald Trump Jr, Twitter Post, April 27, 2018, https://twitter.com/DonaldJTrumpJr/status/989854191559626752. On April 27, 2018, Donald Trump Jr. tweeted claiming the “globalist elite” would never allow Trump to win a Nobel Peace Prize.
 Spencer Sunshine, “A Guide to Who’s Coming to the Largest White Nationalist Rally in a Decade,” Political Research Associates, August 10, 2017, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2017/08/10/a-guide-to-whos-coming-to-the-largest-white-nationalist-rally-in-a-decade.
 “California police release on bail man suspected of threatening to shoot a synagogue,” The Guardian, June 18, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jun/18/california-police-release-man-suspected-of-threatening-to-shoot-a-synagogue; Jon Haworth, “Ohio white nationalist, anti-Semite arrested for threatening to shoot up Jewish community center, police say,” ABC News, August 18, 2019, https://abcnews.go.com/US/ohio-white-nationalist-anti-semite-arrested-threatening-shoot/story?id=65040200.
 Claudia Koerner, “An Indiana Man Who Vandalized A Synagogue With Nazi Symbols Admitted How Far-Right Figures Radicalized Him,” Buzzfeed News, May 26, 2019, https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/claudiakoerner/indiana-man-vandalized-synagogue-nazi-symbols-radicalized; “Police: Anti-Semitic Vandalism At Jewish Cemetery Is Far Worse Than They Thought,” WBUR, March 21, 2019, https://www.wbur.org/news/2019/03/21/anti-semitic-vandalism-worse-hebrew-cemetery.
 Eric Ward, “Skin In the Game: How Antisemitism Animates White Nationalism,” Political Research Associates, June 29, 2017, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2017/06/29/skin-in-the-game-how-antisemitism-animates-white-nationalism.
 David Neiwert, “Birth of the Alt Right,” Political Research Associates, March 22, 2017, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2017/03/22/birth-of-the-alt-right. Neiwert explains that White nationalism is “A far-right movement that took hold among “academic racists” in the 1990s, who contended that racial genetics imparted inherent characteristics such as intelligence, White nationalists followed these arguments with a call for distinct ethnostates that could enable racial separation. Moreover, the movement’s ideologues claimed, traditional White European culture faced an onslaught from non-White immigration and liberal multiculturalists.”
 Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort (New York: The Guilford Press, 2000), p. 172, 266-67; Chip Berlet and Margaret Quigly, “Theocracy and White Supremacy: Behind the Culture War to Restore Traditional Values,” Political Research Associates, December 1, 1992. “Samuel Francis, the prototypical racial nationalist, writes columns warning against attempts to ‘wipe out traditional White, American, Christian, and Western Culture,’ which he blames on multiculturalism…At the heart of this Culture War, or kulturkampf, as Patrick Buchanan calls it, is a paranoid conspiratorial view of leftist secular humanism, dating to the turn of the century and dependent upon powerful but rarely stated presumptions of racial nationalism based on Eurocentric White supremacy, Christian theocracy, and subversive liberal treachery.”
 “White Genocide,” Anti-Defamation League, https://www.adl.org/resources/glossary-terms/white-genocide; Lauretta Charlton, “What Is the Great Replacement?” New York Times, August 6, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/06/us/politics/grand-replacement-explainer.html.
 Leonard Zeskind, Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement from the Margins to the Mainstream (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009), p. 490.
 Spencer Sunshine, “A Guide to Who’s Coming to the Largest White Nationalist Rally in a Decade,” Political Research Associates, August 10, 2017, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2017/08/10/a-guide-to-whos-coming-to-the-largest-white-nationalist-rally-in-a-decade; Zeskind, Blood and Politics, 540.
 Steven Gardiner, “White Nationalism Revisited: Demographic Dystopia and White Identity Politics,” Journal of Hate Studies Volume 4, Number 1 (2005): https://journals.gonzaga.edu/index.php/johs/article/view/66.
 “14 Words,” Anti-Defamation League, accessed September 23, 2019, https://www.adl.org/education/references/hate-symbols/14-words.
 Andrew Anglin, “A Normie’s Guide to the Alt-Right,” The Daily Stormer, August 31, 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20181021194007/https:/dailystormer.name/a-normies-guide-to-the-Alt-Right/.
 Andrew Anglin, “A Normie’s Guide to the Alt-Right,” The Daily Stormer, August 31, 2016, https://web.archive.org/web/20181021194007/https:/dailystormer.name/a-n….
 Emily Gorcenski, “Proud Boys: A Republican Party Street Gang,” Political Research Associates, February 28, 2019, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2019/02/28/proud-boys.
 Kevin MacDonald, “Kevin MacDonald responds to criticism of his theory of Jewish ethnocentrism and influence,” Genetic Literacy Project, May 2, 2018, https://donotlink.it/MaxXn.
 Spencer Sunshine, “Three Pillars of the Alt Right: White Nationalism, Antisemitism, and Misogyny,” Political Research Associates, December 4, 2017, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2017/12/04/three-pillars-of-the-alt-right-white-nationalism-antisemitism-and-misogyny.
 Sam Francis and Victor Gerhard, “Sam Francis – Vic Gerhard Exchange, Documenting Sammy’s Great Fear,” Vanguard News Network, February 22, 2005, https://donotlink.it/g06aY.
 Greg Johnson, “Vanguardism, Vantardism, & Mainstreaming,” Counter-Currents Publishing, October 9, 2014, https://donotlink.it/bMp4l.
 Kevin MacDonald, The Culture of Critique: An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements (Authorhouse, 1998), p. 263-291.
 Kevin MacDonald, The Culture of Critique: An Evolutionary Analysis of Jewish Involvement in Twentieth-Century Intellectual and Political Movements, Preface to the First Paperback Edition, https://donotlink.it/oQeZg.
 Kevin MacDonald, “Jewish Involvement In Shaping American Immigration Policy, 1881-1965: An Historical Overview,” Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Volume 19, Number 4 (March 1998): 295. https://donotlink.it/2WLmE.
 William Pierce, “Great Masters of the Lie,” Free Speech Magazine, January 2002. https://donotlink.it/Y4wVg.
 “‘Turner Diaries’ introduced in McVeigh trial,” CNN, April 28, 1997, http://edition.cnn.com/US/9704/28/okc/.
 J.M. Berger, “How ‘The Turner Diaries’ Changed White nationalism,” The Atlantic, September 16, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/09/how-the-turner-diaries-changed-white-nationalism/500039/
 Andrew Joyce, “Jewish Involvement in Contemporary Refugee and Migrant Organizations- Part Two,” The Occidental Observer, December 29, 2018, https://donotlink.it/xOlmr.
 David Lane, White Genocide Manifesto (14 Word Press), https://donotlink.it/MaxB1.
 Cristina Lopez G., “Breaking down Gab: What you need to know about the social media platform that is a “haven for white nationalists”,” Media Matters for America, October 28, 2018, https://www.mediamatters.org/tucker-carlson/breaking-down-gab-what-you-need-know-about-social-media-platform-haven-white.
 Lois Beckett and Jason Wilson, “‘White power ideology’: why El Paso is part of a growing global threat,” The Guardian, August 5, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/aug/04/el-paso-shooting-white-nationalist-supremacy-violence-christchurch; Reverend Jennifer Bailey and Dove Kent, “Charleston to Tree of Life: White nationalism is a threat to us all,” Salon, October 31, 2018, https://www.salon.com/2018/10/31/charleston-to-tree-of-life-white-nationalism-is-a-threat-to-us-all_partner/; Jane Coaston, “The New Zealand shooter’s manifesto shows how white nationalist rhetoric spreads,” Vox, March 18, 2019, https://www.vox.com/identities/2019/3/15/18267163/new-zealand-shooting-christchurch-white-nationalism-racism-language.
 Shane Burley, “Wolf Age,” Commune Magazine Issue 3, Summer 2019. https://communemag.com/wolf-age/; Naomi Braine, “Terror Network or Lone Wolf?” The Public Eye, Spring 2015, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2015/06/19/terror-network-or-lone-wolf.
 Mark Follman, “Four Mass Shootings Have Been Thwarted Since the El Paso Massacre, Authorities Say,” Mother Jones, August 20, 2019, https://www.motherjones.com/crime-justice/2019/08/four-mass-shootings-plotted-by-young-white-men-have-been-thwarted-since-el-paso-authorities-say/; “California police release on bail man suspected of threatening to shoot a synagogue,” The Guardian, June 18, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/jun/18/california-police-release-man-suspected-of-threatening-to-shoot-a-synagogue; Steve Gorman, “Accused neo-Nazi charged in Las Vegas with possessing bomb-making material,” Reuters, August 9, 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-nevada-threat/accused-neo-nazi-charged-in-las-vegas-with-possessing-bomb-making-material-idUSKCN1V002J; Dakin Andone, Amir Vera and Taylor Romine, “A man has been arrested for allegedly threatening a shooting at a Jewish community center in Ohio,” CNN, August 18, 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/18/us/youngstown-ohio-jewish-community-center-threat/index.html.
 Lizzie Dearden, “German synagogue shooting: Suspect ‘broadcast attack livestream on Twitch’ and ranted about Holocaust, Jews and immigration,” The Independent, October 10, 2019, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/germany-shooting-synagogue-attack-latest-twitch-livestream-gunman-holocaust-jews-a9149381.html.
 Jane Coaston, “The New Zealand shooter’s manifesto shows how white nationalist rhetoric spreads,” Vox, March 18, 2019, https://www.vox.com/identities/2019/3/15/18267163/new-zealand-shooting-christchurch-white-nationalism-racism-language.
 Colin P. Clarke, “The Cult of Breivik,” Slate, March 18, 2019, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2019/03/anders-breivik-new-zealand-right-wing-terrorism-inspiration.html.
 Lois Beckett, “More than 175 killed worldwide in last eight years in white nationalist-linked attacks,” The Guardian, August 4, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/aug/04/mass-shootings-white-nationalism-linked-attacks-worldwide.
 Jonathan Greenblatt, “Right-wing killings eclipsed all other extremist-related murders in 2018. The numbers don’t lie.” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, January 24, 2019, https://www.jta.org/2019/01/24/opinion/right-wing-extremist-violence-is-our-biggest-threat-the-numbers-dont-lie; “Anti-Semitic Incidents Remained At Near-Historic Levels in 2018; Assaults Against Jews More Than Doubled,” Anti-Defamation League, April 30, 2019, https://www.adl.org/news/press-releases/anti-semitic-incidents-remained-at-near-historic-levels-in-2018-assaults; Jana Winter and Hunter Walker, “Here’s the data on white supremacist terrorism the Trump administration has been ‘unable or unwilling’ to give to Congress,” Yahoo News, August 8, 2019, https://news.yahoo.com/heres-the-data-the-trump-administration-wouldnt-give-congress-on-white-supremacist-terrorism-235254627.html.
 Zack Beauchamp, “Study: 11 million white Americans think like the alt-right,” Vox, August 10, 2018, https://www.vox.com/2018/8/10/17670992/study-white-americans-alt-right-racism-white-nationalists.
 Patrick Forscher and Nour Kteily, “A Psychological Profile of the Alt-right,” PsyArXiv, August 9, 2017, https://psyarxiv.com/c9uvw.
 William Frey, “The US will become ‘minority white’ in 2045, Census projects,” The Brookings Institution, March 14, 2018, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2018/03/14/the-us-will-become-minority-white-in-2045-census-projects/.
 Alex Vandermaas-Peeler, Daniel Cox, Maxine Najle, Molly Fisch-Friedman, Rob Griffin and Robert P. Jones, “Partisan Polarization Dominates Trump Era: Findings from the 2018 American Values Survey,” Public Religion Research Institute, October 29, 2018, https://www.prri.org/research/partisan-polarization-dominates-trump-era-findings-from-the-2018-american-values-survey/. The authors found one-third (33%) of Americans say that the impact of this demographic shift will be mostly negative.
 Jayashri Srikantiah and Shirin Sinnar, “White Nationalism as Immigration Policy,” Stanford Law Review Online Volume 71 (March 2019), https://review.law.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2019/02/71-Stan.-L.-Rev.-Srikantiah-Sinnar.pdf.
 Courtney Hagle, “How Fox News pushed the white supremacist ‘great replacement’ theory,” Media Matters for America, August 5, 2019, https://www.mediamatters.org/tucker-carlson/how-fox-news-pushed-white-supremacist-great-replacement-theory.
 “Where the White House Gets it Racist Immigration Policies,” Political Research Associates, March 1, 2018, https://www.politicalresearch.org/2018/03/01/where-the-white-house-gets-its-racist-immigration-policies. Tanton insisted in 1993 that, “for European-American Society and culture to persist requires a European-American majority, and a clear one at that,” and voiced to a supporter, two years later, his “prime concern” that “the cultural consequences of demographic changes that are under way” lead to “the decline of folks who look like you and me.”
 Jennette Barnes, “Hodgson accused of ‘colluding’ with white-majority agenda,” South Coast Today, June 25, 2017, https://www.southcoasttoday.com/news/20170725/hodgson-accused-of-colluding-with-white-majority-agenda. FAIR’s current executive director, Bob Dane, when asked whether he would disavow a goal of maintaining or expanding a European-American majority, said, “For many, the question of whether a country loses its majority status is a fair question.” France, for example, is “probably wondering whether it is still going to be a French country” with all the people crossing the border, he said. “It’s a legitimate policy question for a lot of folks;” Mark Krikorian, “Where There Is No Border, the Nations Perish,” National Review, September 1, 2015, https://donotlink.it/g03lj. Mark Krikorian, executive director of CIS, explained the European migrant crisis by referencing Camp of the Saints, a 1973 novel, beloved by Trump immigration adviser Steve Bannon, that paints an apocalyptic picture of the collapse of Western society and culture stemming from a “tidal wave” of non-European immigration.
 Daniel Friberg, “Metapolitics From the Right,” AltRight.com, September 23, 2017, https://donotlink.it/7mGVG. Swedish White nationalist thought leader Daniel Friberg articulates a long-term “metapolitical” strategy of “affecting and shaping people’s thoughts, worldviews, and the very concepts which they use to make sense of and define the world around them,” in order to win a “war of social transformation, fought on the level of worldview, thought, and culture.”
 Jason Wilson, “Exposed: the Republican who stokes fears of civil war and fuels conspiracy theories,” The Guardian, May 9, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/may/09/matt-shea-republican-stokes-fears-civil-war-conspiracy-theories.
 “The International Jew: 1920s Anti-Semitism Revived Online,” Anti-Defamation League, https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/the-international-jew-1920s-anti-semitism-revived-online.
 “A Hoax of Hate: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion,” Anti-Defamation League, https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/a-hoax-of-hate-the-protocols-of-the-learned-elders-of-zion.
 See Moishe Postone, “Anti-Semitism and National Socialism: Notes on the German Reaction to ‘Holocaust’,” New German Critique No. 19, Special Issue 1: Germans and Jews (1980): 97-115. https://libcom.org/library/anti-semitism-national-socialism-moishe-postone. “What characterizes the power imputed to, the Jews in modern anti-Semitism is that it is mysteriously intangible, abstract, and universal. It is considered to be a form of power that does not manifest itself directly, but must find another mode of expression. It seeks a concrete carrier, whether political, social, or cultural, through which it can work… It is considered to stand behind phenomena, but not to be identical with them. Its source is therefore deemed hidden—conspiratorial. The Jews represent an immensely powerful, intangible, international conspiracy…centered in the ‘asphalt jungles’ of the newly emergent urban megalopoli…behind ‘vulgar, materialist, modern culture’ and, in general, all forces contributing to the decline of traditional social groupings, values, and institutions. The Jews represent a foreign, dangerous, destructive force undermining the social ‘health’ of the nation.”
 Jason Wilson, “Exposed: the Republican who stokes fears of civil war and fuels conspiracy theories,” The Guardian, May 9, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/may/09/matt-shea-republican-stokes-fears-civil-war-conspiracy-theories.
 “Anti-Semitic Fox News contributor Robert Jeffress attacks the Pope as a ‘globalist’ who wants a one world government,’” Media Matters, November 2, 2018, https://www.mediamatters.org/lou-dobbs/anti-semitic-fox-news-contributor-robert-jeffress-attacks-pope-globalist-who-wants-one. Pastor Robert Jeffress on Fox show “Lou Dobbs Tonight” claimed, “The end game of globalists is to erase the distinction between nations and eliminate the differences between people who live in and outside our country, and that’s wrong;” “On Fox, Rush Limbaugh rants that Democrats are part of ‘a globalist movement to eliminate the whole concept of citizenship’ in order to get ‘non-citizens to vote,’ Media Matters, July 12, 2019, https://www.mediamatters.org/fox-friends/fox-rush-limbaugh-rants-democrats-are-part-globalist-movement-eliminate-whole-concept. On “Fox & Friends,” Rush Limbaugh claimed “The reason the Democrats want open borders…is a globalist movement to eliminate the whole concept of citizenship…these are global elites who want to manage the world and control as much of the population as they can. And the first thing you do, if you really want to do that, is get rid of this concept that people are citizens of different countries.”
 Ben Sales, “Senator’s speech on ‘cosmopolitan elites’: Anti-Semitic dog whistle or poli-sci speak?” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, July 19, 2019, https://www.jta.org/2019/07/19/united-states/a-missouri-senator-gave-a-speech-opposing-a-powerful-upper-class-and-their-cosmopolitan-priorities-um. The “cosmopolitan elite,” Senator Hawley exclaimed to a roomful of attentive conservatives at the 2019 National Conservatism Conference, “look[s] down on the common affections that once bound this nation together: things like place and national feeling and religious faith.”
 Jamie White, “Report: UN, Soros Behind Migrant Caravan Invasion,” Infowars, October 20, 2018, https://donotlink.it/BwvQb.
 Janine Jackson and Audrey Sasson, ‘Charleston and Tree of Life are Connected Struggles,” Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, November 6, 2018, https://fair.org/home/charleston-and-tree-of-life-are-connected-struggles/.
 Chip Berlet and Matthew Lyons, Right-Wing Populism In America: Too Close For Comfort (New York: The Guilford Press, 2000), 2.
 Chip Berlet and Matthew Lyons, Right-Wing Populism In America: Too Close For Comfort, 7.
 Chip Berlet and Matthew Lyons, Right-Wing Populism In America: Too Close For Comfort, 4-5.
 Chip Berlet and Matthew Lyons, Right-Wing Populism In America: Too Close For Comfort, 5.
 Jack Crowe, “Hawley Calls on GOP to Revitalize “Great American Middle” in Maiden Floor Speech,” National Review, May 15, 2019, https://donotlink.it/g0egN.
 Dania Rajendra, email message to author, September 5, 2019.
 Dara Lind, “The migrant caravan, explained,” Vox, October 25, 2018, https://www.vox.com/2018/10/24/18010340/caravan-trump-border-honduras-mexico.
 Brad Heath, Matt Wynn and Jessica Guynn, “How a lie about George Soros and the migrant caravan multiplied online,” USA Today, October 31, 2018, https://www.usatoday.com/in-depth/news/nation/2018/10/31/george-soros-and-migrant-caravan-how-lie-multiplied-online/1824633002/.
 Jonathan Albright, “The rumor caravan: from Twitter reply to disaster,” Columbia Journalism Review, October 30, 2018, https://www.cjr.org/tow_center/the-rumor-caravan-from-twitter-reply-to-disaster.php.
 Michael Knigge, “Migrant caravan ‘could not be larger gift’ for Donald Trump,” DW, October 23, 2018, https://www.dw.com/en/migrant-caravan-could-not-be-larger-gift-for-donald-trump/a-46013111.
 “Fox News Channel Continues To Dominate All Of Basic Cable As The Most-Watched Network In Both Primetime And Total Day,” Fox News, October 30, 2018, http://press.foxnews.com/2018/10/fox-news-channel-continues-to-dominate-all-of-basic-cable-as-the-most-watched-network-in-both-primetime-and-total-day/.
 Search: George Soros, Judicial Watch, https://www.judicialwatch.org/?s=george+soros; Harry Kazenoff, “George Soros and Tom Steyer Invest in the Left-Wing of the Democratic Party,” Capital Research Center, October 18, 2018, https://capitalresearch.org/article/george-soros-and-tom-steyer-invest-in-the-left-wing-of-the-democratic-party/.
 Heath, Wynn and Guynn, “How a lie about George Soros and the migrant caravan multiplied online.”
 Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris and Hal Roberts, “Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics,” Oxford Scholarship Online, October 2018, p. 73-79, https://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780190923624.001.0001/oso-9780190923624.
 Chip Berlet, “Heroes Know Which Villians to Kill: How Coded Rhetoric Incites Scripted Violence,” in Doublespeak: The Rhetoric of the Far-Right Since 1945 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2014). https://www.academia.edu/26640115/Heroes_Know_Which_Villains_to_Kill_How_Coded_Rhetoric_Incites_Scripted_Violence.
 Donald Trump Jr, Twitter Post, October 2, 2019, https://twitter.com/DonaldJTrumpJr/status/1179516053988220928. On October 2, 2019, Donald Trump Jr. tweeted a claim that Democratic Representative Adam Schiff was “hand picked and supported by George Soros” and “a George Soros *puppet*.” Representative Schiff, who is himself Jewish, was Chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, and a prominent voice investigating whistleblower allegations against President Trump’s conversations with Ukranian President Volodymyr Zelensky; Reed Richardson, “Giuliani Claims He Abandoned Ukranian Trip Because ‘Soros People, Democrats’ Surround Its New Jewish President,” Mediaite, May 31, 2019, https://www.mediaite.com/election-2020/rudy-giuliani-now-claims-he-abandoned-ukrainian-oppo-research-trip-because-soros-people-democrats-surround-its-new-jewish-president/. In May 2019, Rudy Giuliani claimed on Fox News that he canceled a trip to Ukraine because Ukraine’s newly-elected president, who is Jewish, is “surrounded by Soros people.”
 Eileen Sullivan, “Trump Again Accuses American Jews of Disloyalty,” The New York Times, August 21, 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/21/us/politics/trump-jews-disloyalty.html. On August 20, 2019, President Trump told reporters during an Oval Office meeting, “If you want to vote Democrat, you are being very disloyal to Jewish people and very disloyal to Israel;” Adam Edelman, “Trump pushes nationalism in U.N. speech: ‘the future does not belong to globalists’,” NBC News, September 24, 2019, https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/donald-trump/future-does-not-belong-globalists-trump-pushes-nationalism-u-n-n1058171. On September 24, 2019, during his speech to the United Nations, President Trump claimed that “The future does not belong to globalists. The future belongs to patriots.”
 Adam Peck, “Missouri GOP Senator trots out anti-Semitic trope during speech before national conservative group,” ThinkProgress, July 20, 2019, https://thinkprogress.org/hawley-anti-semitic-trope-bacaf74d8892/; “Senator Hawley Delivers Maiden Speech In the Senate,” Josh Hawley: US Senator For Missouri, May 15, 2019, https://www.hawley.senate.gov/senator-hawley-delivers-maiden-speech-senate. On May 15, 2019, Senator Josh Hawley delivered his first speech on the Senate floor, condemning the “cultural elite” in “the media, Hollywood, academia” who “live in the United States, but they consider themselves citizens of the world” and seek to benefit a “global order.”
 Mary Papenfuss, “Fox Business Slams GOP Rep. Louie Gohmert for Anti-Soros Screed- On Fox Business,” Huffington Post, December 7, 2018, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/fox-business-louie-gohmert-for-george-soros-anti-semitism_n_5c09df95e4b04046345a9ce9. On December 7, 2018, Representative Louis Gohmert questioned George Soros’s Jewish ancestry in an unprovoked diatribe on Fox News. “George Soros is supposed to be Jewish, but you wouldn’t know it from the damage he’s inflicted on Israel and the fact that he turned on fellow Jews and helped take the property that they owned,” Gohmert stated.
 Daniel Moritz-Rabson, “Republican Jim Jordan Accused of Anti-Semitism After Tweeting About Prominent Liberal Donor ‘Tom $teyer’, Whose Father Was Jewish,” Newsweek, March 4, 2019, https://www.newsweek.com/jim-jordan-anti-semitism-tom-steyer-1350911. On March 4, 2019, a tweet from Representative Jim Jordan used “$teyer” to reference Tom Steyer, a prominent Democratic donor whose father is Jewish, and who has frequently been scapegoated, along with Soros and Michael Bloomberg, with antisemitic dog-whistles.
 Christal Hayes, “Alabama Rep. Mo Brooks reads from Hitler’s ‘Mein Kampf’ while bashing Democrats, media,” USA Today, March 26, 2019, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2019/03/26/alabama-mo-brooks-quotes-hitler-house-floor-bash-democrats/3282595002/. On March 26, 2019, Representative Mo Brooks read from Hitler’s Mein Kampf to demonize Democrats and liberal media on the floor of Congress.
 National Republican Congressional Committee chairman sent letter saying Soros, Steyer, Bloomberg bought Congress,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, August 4, 2019, http://www.jta.org/quick-reads/national-republican-congressional-committee-chairman-sent-letter-saying-rich-jews-bought-congress. On August 4, 2019, it was revealed that Representative Tom Emmer, National Republican Congressional Committee chairman, claimed in an internal committee memo that Soros, Steyer and Bloomberg “bought control of Congress for the Democrats.”
 Ben Sales, “Senator’s speech on ‘cosmopolitan elites’: Anti-Semitic dog whistle or poli-sci speak?” [insert outlet], July 19, 2019, https://www.jta.org/2019/07/19/united-states/a-missouri-senator-gave-a-speech-opposing-a-powerful-upper-class-and-their-cosmopolitan-priorities-um.
 “Lou Dobbs Tonight,” Fox Business Network, Fox News Channel, New York, NY: September 11, 2019. https://twitter.com/bad_takes/status/1171947107252625408?s=21.
 “Tucker Carlson Tonight,” Fox News, Fox News Channel, New York, NY: June 10, 2019. https://twitter.com/ndrew_lawrence/status/1138251578236952577?s=21; “Tucker Carlson Tonight,” Fox News, Fox News Channel, New York, NY: July 23, 2019. .https://twitter.com/peltzmadeline/status/1153829002684973057?s=21; “Tucker Carlson Tonight,” Fox News, Fox News Channel, New York, NY: July 29, 2019. https://twitter.com/ColumbiaBugle/status/1156011027567222785.
 “The Laura Ingraham Angle,” Fox News, Fox News Channel, New York, NY: May 30, 2019. https://twitter.com/jasonscampbell/status/1134285289986383874?s=21.
 Donica Phifer, “Glenn Beck Claims Without Evidence that Migrant ‘Wave’ At The Border Is Being Backed By George Soros And American Communists,” Newsweek, April 11, 2019, https://www.newsweek.com/glenn-beck-migrant-wave-border-being-backed-george-soros-american-communists-1392865.
 Courtney Hagle, “Fox & Friends guest pushes anti-Semitic conspiracy theory that motivated Tree of Life synagogue shooter,” Media Matters for America, September 9, 2019, https://www.mediamatters.org/fox-friends/fox-michelle-malkin-pushes-anti-semitic-conspiracy-theory-motivated-tree-life-synagogue.
 Ian Schwartz, “Ret. Army Col. Macgregor: ‘Globalist Elite’ In Pentagon Pressuring Trump To Stay In Afghanistan,” RealClear Politics, November 28, 2018, https://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2018/11/28/ret_army_col_macgregor_globalist_elite_in_pentagon_pressuring_trump_to_stay_in_afghanistan.html; Reed Richardson, “Giuliani Claims He Abandoned Ukraine Trip Because ‘Soros People, Democrats’ Surround Its New Jewish President,” Mediate, May 31, 2019, https://www.mediaite.com/election-2020/rudy-giuliani-now-claims-he-abandoned-ukrainian-oppo-research-trip-because-soros-people-democrats-surround-its-new-jewish-president/; Talia Lavin, “The far-right continues to spread the conspiracy theory that inspired the synagogue shooter,” Media Matters for America, December 13, 2018, https://www.mediamatters.org/tucker-carlson/far-right-continues-spread-conspiracy-theory-inspired-synagogue-shooter.
 “Center for Immigration Studies Fellow Goes on Anti-Semitic Radio Show, While CIS Analyst Claims CIR Will Cause ‘Unmaking of America,’” Center for New Community, January 15, 2014, http://web.archive.org/web/20170625005928/http:/imagine2050.newcomm.org/2014/01/15/centerforimmigrationstudies-extremist-immigration-antisemitism/. In 2013, a CIS Policy Fellow appeared on the virulently antisemitic internet radio program “The Realist Report,” where he declined to answer whether he believed immigration policy was part of a Jewish agenda to “destroy the traditional ethnic makeup of the United States;” “IRLI sues the Obama Administration for records related to its unlawful refugee programs,” Federation for American Immigration Reform, June 16, 2016, https://www.fairus.org/press-releases/irli-sues-obama-administration-records-related-its-unlawful-refugee-programs. In 2016, FAIR sued the Obama administration seeking records of cooperative agreements with refugee advocacy groups “sponsored by open-borders globalist, George Soros;” “2016 Board of Advisors Conference: Saturday, September 24, 2016—Noon to 8:30 p.m.,” Federation for American Immigration Reform. Copy of conference agenda, obtained via public records request by Bristol County for Correctional Justice, https://bccjustice.wordpress.com/2018/09/28/help-analyze-data/. In September 2016, FAIR’s Board of Advisors conference in Washington, D.C. featured a talk by FAIR’s media director entitled “Soros Hacked: The Truth Behind His Big Money Network to Destroy US Borders;” Mark Krikorian, Twitter Post, November 5, 2018, https://twitter.com/MarkSKrikorian/status/1059583867005353984. In November 2018, Mark Krikorian, head of CIS, suggested that Soros was funding the migrant caravan.
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